In the US, in order to practice medicine legally one must take and receive a passing score on the United States Medical Licensing Examination USMLE, which is a three-part examination to be taken during and after medical school. Upon completion of medical educations, doctors may obtain certification in their respective chosen field. There are 24 specialty boards that certify physicians in the US, most of which would require separate examinations.
Nursing is different as there are different tiers in the profession. Certified Nursing Assistant CNA candidates must complete a state-approved education program and an exam to earn their CNA (or related) title. Licensed practical nurse LPN has a slightly different path – a Nursing Diploma should be earned before attempting to clear the National Council Licensure Examination NCLEX-PN so to get qualified to work. Registered nurse RN may require a Bachelor’s degree as well as passing the National Council Licensure Examination. Advanced practice registered nurse APRN may require a Master degree on top of everything.
There are many other specialties in a clinical setup, including EHR specialist, medical technologist, coding specialist, billing specialists, auditor …etc etc.
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